இ.த.ச 378 : திருட்டு
ஒருவர் தம் வசம் வைத்திருக்கும் அசையும் பொருளை, அவருடைய அனுமதியின்றி , நாணயமற்ற முறையில் எடுத்துக் கொள்ள வேண்டும் என்ற கருத்துடன் அந்தப் பொருளை எடுத்துக் கொள்வதற்காக அப்படி நகர்த்துவதை திருட்டு என்கிறோம்.
விளக்கம் - 1
பூமியுடன் இனைக்கப்பட்ட பொருள் அத்துடன் இனைக்கப்பட்டிருக்கும் வரை அது திருட்டாகாது, அது அந்த இனைப்பை விடும் போது திருட்டாகிறது.
அவ்வாறு அந்த இனைக்கப்பட்ட பொருளை பூமியிலிருந்து பிடுங்க முயற்சி செய்யும் பொழுது திருட்டு செயலும் புரியப்படுகிறது
ஒருப் பொருளை நகர விடாமல் போடப்பட்ட ஒரு பாதுக்காப்பு வளையத்தை உடைப்பதும் அல்லது அழிப்பதும் அல்லது அந்த பொருளை வேறு ஒருப் பொருளிலிருந்து பிரிப்பதும் - நேரடியாக அந்தப் பொருளை நகர்த்துதல் என்ற பொருளில் கொள்ளப்படும்.
அந்தப் பொருளை ஒரு மிருகத்தின் மூலம் நகர்த்தினாலும் நேரடியாக அந்தப் பொருளை நகர்த்துதல் என்ற பொருளில் கொள்ளப்படும்.
சம்மதம் என்பது என்னவெனில் - சம்மதம் தெளிவாக தரப்பலாம் அல்லது சட்டப்பூர்வமாக தரப்படலாம் அல்லது அது பொருளுக்குரியவரின் சார்பில் அதிகாரம் பெற்றவரின் மூலம் அளிக்கப்படலாம்.
IPC 378: TheftWhoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person’ consent, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft.
- A thing so long as it is attached to the earth, not being movable property, is not the subject of theft; but it becomes capable of being the subject of theft as soon as it is severed from the earth.
- A moving effected by the same act which effects the severance may be a theft.
- A person is said to cause a thing to move by removing an obstacle which prevented it from moving or by separating it from any other thing, as well as by actually moving it.
- A person, who by any means causes an animal to move, is said to move that animal, and to move everything which, in consequence of the motion so caused, is moved by that animal.
- The consent mentioned in the definition may be express or implied, and may be given either by the person in possession, or by any person having for that purpose authority either express or implied.
- A cuts down a tree on Z’ ground, with the intention of dishonestly taking the tree out of Z’ possession without Z’ consent. Here, as soon as A has severed the tree in order to such taking, he has committed theft.
- A puts a bait for dogs in his pocket, and thus induces Z’ dog to follow it. Here, if A’ intention be dishonestly to take the dog out of Z’ possession without Z’ consent, A has committed theft as soon as Z’ dog has begun to follow A.
- A meets a bullock carrying a box of treasure. He drives the bullock in a certain direction, in order that he may dishonestly take the treasure. As soon as the bullock begins to move, A has committed theft of the treasure.
- A being Z’ servant, and entrusted by Z with the care of Z’ plate, dishonestly runs away with the plate, without Z’ consent. A has committed theft.
- Z, going on a journey, entrusts his plate to A, the keeper of a warehouse, till Z shall return. A carries the plate to a goldsmith and sells it. Here the plate was not in Z’ possession. It could not therefore be taken out of Z’ possession, and A has not committed theft, though he may have committed criminal breach of trust.
- A finds a ring belonging to Z on a table in the house which Z occupies. Here the ring is in Z’ possession, and if A dishonestly removes it, A commits theft.
- A finds a ring lying on the high-road, not in the possession of any person. A, by taking it, commits no theft, though he may commit criminal misappropriation of property.
- A sees a ring belonging to Z lying on a table in Z’ house. Not venturing to misappropriate the ring immediately for fear of search and detection, A hides the ring in a place where it is highly improbable that it will ever be found by Z, with the intention of taking the ring from the hiding place and selling it when the loss is forgotten. Here A, at the time of first moving the ring, commits theft.
- A delivers his watch to Z, a jeweller, to be regulated. Z carries it to his shop. A, not owing to the jeweller any debt for which the jeweller might lawfully detain the watch as a security, enters the shop openly, takes his watch by force out of Z’ hand, and carries it away. Here A, though he may have committed criminal trespass and assault, has not committed theft, inasmuch as what he did was not done dishonestly.
- If A owes money to Z for repairing the watch, and if Z retains the watch lawfully as a security for the debt, and A takes the watch out of Z’ possession, with the intention of depriving Z of the property as a security for his debt, he commits theft, inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.
- Again, if A, having pawned his watch to Z, takes it out of Z’ possession without Z’ consent, not having paid what he borrowed on the watch, he commits theft, though the watch is his own property inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.
- A takes an article belonging to Z out of Z’ possession without Z’ consent, with the intention of keeping it until he obtains money from Z as a reward for its restoration. Here A takes dishonestly; A has therefor committed theft.
- A being on friendly terms with Z, goes into Z’ library in Z’ absence, and takes away a book without Z’ express consent for the purpose merely of reading it, and with the intention of returning it. Here, it is probable that A may have conceived that he had Z’ implied consent to use Z’ book. If this was A’ impression, A has not committed theft.
- A asks charity from Z’ wife. She gives A money, food and clothes, which A knows to belong to Z her husband. Here it is probable that A may conceive that Z’ wife is authorized to give away alms. If this was A’ impression, A has not committed theft.
- A is the paramour of Z’ wife. She gives a valuable property, which A knows to belong to her husband Z, and to be such property as she has not authority from Z to give. If A takes the property dishonestly, he commits theft.
- A, in good faith, believing property belonging to Z to be A’ own property, takes that property out of B’ possession. Here, as A does not take dishonestly, he does not commit theft.